Situated on the coast of Indian Ocean, Kenya is a South African state that lies across the equator. According to the paleontologists, Kenya was first inhabited by people about 2 million years ago. The Arabs established settlements along the coast in the 700s and the Portuguese ruled the area in the early 1500s. More than 40 ethnic groups live in Kenya. The land became the British colony in 1890 and a Crown colony in 1920 and was called the British East Africa. (kenya) Kenya gained independence 1963. Kenya has a population of 42.7 billion. The major languages of the country are English and Swahili. The currency is Kenya shilling and the most practiced religion is Christianity. (Kenya country profile, 2015)

Political Factors

Kenya was considered most stable country in Africa until late 2007. The disputed elections that took place in 2007 gave rise to violent riots that took the life of six hundred people. As a consequence it was feared that Kenya would split into different tribes and would face the unending uproar every now and then. But these notions were discarded by the experts as the premature assumptions. Kenya is a young democratic state and its ethnic divisions are rooted in the political crises of Kenya.

The most influential rank of government is that of president in Kenya. The parliament and jurisdiction is sub subservient to the president. Parliament is elected by the general population by it holds little power over them. So when the voters realized that their elected bodies are in no condition to address their issues, they started to doubt their governmental institutions.  The elections of December 2007 add further to the fact that the political authorities in Kenya are not independent. The increasing corruption in the governmental institutions has damaged people’s faith in their ability. Kenya was ranked 150 out of 180 countries on Transparency International’s Corruption Perception Index. According to the Kenya Bribery Index, published in 2007 by Transparency International, Kenya paid twice as many bribes in 2006. (Hanson, 2008)

Economic Factors

Kenya’s growing economic progress shows its potential to move forward. The Kenyan economy registered its performance in 2102 by the growth of 4.6% in GDP compared to 4.4% in 2011. It has witnessed improved prices of good and exchange rate stability. However it still needs to increase its income growth per capita at a faster pace as compared to 1.7% in 2012. Kenya thrives on its agriculture when it comes to increase its economic growth

The World Bank has estimated a growth rate of 4.7% in GDP in 2014 and has launched a $4billion program under its new Country Partnership Strategy 2014-2018(CPS) to support Kenya’s development.

Kenya has the advantage of increasing its economy by mining and quarrying sectors. However a strong and coherent legal policy should be made to supervise its productivity. ((KIPPRA), 2013)

Social Factors

Socially, Kenya suffered a lot after a few prosperous years of its independence. The poverty increased from 49% in 1990 to 55% in 2001. The life expectancy declined from 57 to 46 years of age due to outbreak of HIV/ AIDS. Kenya is a highly unstable society which suffers from racism by class, gender and religion. (bank, 2006).Kenya inhabits more than 70 tribes among the Africans. Each tribe has a left a significant mark on Kenyan culture. However, Kenyan culture is westernized and has lost its true essence.
The literacy rate in adults is 87%. The annual population growth is 2%. Most of its population lives in villages.

The crime and drugs are major issues of the urban area. The government has institutions and hospitals which provide education and health aid to the poor free of any cost. Women are considered second citizens and men exercise the power and authority. Polygamy is common in Kenya and it is considered a normal act to acquire more than one wife.

Technological Factors

Kenya has taken a leap in the technology sector as compared to the 1990s, especially in the IT department. Kenya has managed to establish e-government services in collaboration with India. Kenyan schools are fully equipped with latest computer labs and instruments.KenGen is the state owned power generating company which is taking advances to increase its geo-thermal power reserves. Lake Victoria is being explored for potential gold mines.

UNESCO Regional Office for Science and Technology for Africa, situated in Nairobi, is a notable scientific institution. Coffee and tea research foundations, plant breading research stations and medical research for tuberculosis and leprosy are also in function in Kenya.

Information and Technology Africa (ICT Africa) was organized along with Nairobi-based African Telecommunications Union and the Union of National Radio and Television Organizations of Africa but the question of putting this technology within the reach of every Kenyan is still unanswerable.

Environmental Factors

Environmental sustainability is a significant issue in Kenya. Kenya has a work force of 75% and only 8% of land. As a result Kenyan farmers are facing soil erosion, deforestation etc. Different regions of the country cope with different climates with medium rainfall in the northern region to the higher rainfall in the central, western and coastal regions. The diversified climate and the escalating rural to urban migration are resulting in the varied cultural settings in the country. The climate in equatorial regions is suitable for the growth of flora and fauna. Kenya has an advantage of that and it has wonderful potential for tourism.The diverse environment has created many job opportunities for the people.

Law/Legal Factors

Kenya has the British law from the colonial times. It also practices the law of Arabs in different tribes two settle a dispute between two Muslims. The legal facilities are not free of cost in Kenya which results in jailing of a lot of Kenyan poor innocents due to lack of legal defense. Kenya has a bad reputation in regard of human rights.

The riots which occurred during elections have left the mass and communication sector in jeopardy. Even though the constitution of Kenya, the Common Law and the Statutory Law defines the rights of media, the press is not given the freedom of speech. The responsible authority is the legal framework which has failed to guaranty the safety of press due to its weaknesses. Corruption is also a milestone that legal system of Kenya has to face but for now, however, it has miserably failed to find a solution to it.


(KIPPRA), K. I. (2013). Kenya economic report 2013 Creating an Enabling Environment for Competitive ans Sustainable Counties. Nairobi: (KIPPRA), Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis. bank, w. (2006). Republic of Kenya Country Social Analysis.

Hanson, S. (2008, January 25). understanding Kenya politics. Retrieved from council on foreign relations: kenya. (n.d.). Retrieved from infoplease:

Kenya country profile. (2015, December 17). Retrieved from BBC news:

Essays, UK. (November 2013). Pestel Analysis Of Kenya Economics Essay. Retrieved from

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